I have had an issue installing a long package texlive-full from chef running kitchen. Searching for Internet I have found this kitchen issue (https://github.com/test-kitchen/test-kitchen/issues/380) where show to to apply a patch to increase the default timeout.

In my case, I install texlive-full package which ten next

apt_package 'textlive-full' do
  action :install
       ---- End output of apt-get -q -y install texlive-full=2013.20140215-1 ----
       Ran apt-get -q -y install texlive-full=2013.20140215-1 returned
       [2016-02-17T08:20:33+01:00] FATAL: Chef::Exceptions::ChildConvergeError: Chef run process exited unsuccessfully (exit code 1)
>>>>>> Converge failed on instance <default-ubuntu-trusty64>.
>>>>>> Please see .kitchen/logs/default-ubuntu-trusty64.log for more details
>>>>>> ------Exception-------
>>>>>> Class: Kitchen::ActionFailed
>>>>>> Message: SSH exited (1) for command: [sh -c '

sudo -E /opt/chef/bin/chef-client --local-mode --config /tmp/kitchen/client.rb --log_level auto --force-formatter --no-color --json-attributes /tmp/kitchen/dna.json --chef-zero-port 8889
>>>>>> ----------------------
zlib(finalizer): the stream was freed prematurely.